What Agreement Was Reached At The Conclusion Of The Third Crusade

According to some sources, Pope Urban III collapsed and died later when he heard the news. Other sources claim that at the time of his death, news of the fall of Jerusalem could not have reached him (but he may have been informed of Saladin`s victory at the Battle of Hattin and the fall of Acre). On July 4, 1187, the Muslim troops of Saladin (Salah al-Din) decisively defeated the Crusader army south of hattin`s horns in Palestine and captured Guy, king of Jerusalem; Reginald de Châtillon, enemy of Saladin, whom he killed personally; more than two hundred Knights of St. John and the Templars, whom he had killed; and many crusaders he bought for free. The remaining imprisoned Christians were sold at local slave markets. During the winter months, Richard`s men occupied and fortified Ascalon, whose fortifications had already been destroyed by Saladin. In the spring of 1192, negotiations continued and further skirmishes between the opposing forces. On May 22, the strategically important fortified city of Darum, on the border with Egypt, fell to the Crusaders after five days of fierce fighting. [67] The Crusader army made another advance on Jerusalem, and in June it arrived in sight of the city before being forced to retreat again, this time due to disagreements between its leaders. In particular, Richard and the majority of the Army Council wanted to force Saladin to abandon Jerusalem by attacking the base of his power by invading Egypt. However, the leader of the French contingent, the Duke of Burgundy, insisted that there be a direct attack on Jerusalem.

This divided the Crusader army into two factions, and neither was strong enough to achieve its goal. Richard declared that he would accompany any attack on Jerusalem, but only as a private; he refused to lead the army. Without a unified command, the army had little choice but to retreat to the coast. [68] From Bratislava, Hungarian envoys escorted the Crusaders to Esztergom, where King Béla III of Hungary welcomed them on June 4. He supplied the army with boats, wine, bread and barley. Frederick stayed in Esztergom for four days. The King of Hungary accompanied the army to the Byzantine border near Belgrade. There were incidents crossing the Drava and Tisza rivers, but the Sava river was crossed without incident on 28 June. In Belgrade, Frederick organized a tournament, held a court, made a census of the army, and wrote to the Byzantine emperor Isaac II to inform him that he had entered Byzantine territory. Although Egypt was the main source of his financial support, Saladin spent almost no time in the Nile Valley after 1174.[41] According to one of his admiring contemporaries, Saladin used egypt`s wealth for the conquest of Syria, that of Syria for the conquest of northern Mesopotamia, and that of northern Mesopotamia for the conquest of the Crusader states along the Levant coast. Crossing the Saleph River on June 10, 1190, Frederick`s horse slid and threw it against the rocks; then he drowned in the river. After that, much of his army returned to Germany by sea in anticipation of the upcoming imperial elections.

The emperor`s son, Frederick of Swabia, led the remaining 5,000 men to Antioch. There, the emperor`s body was cooked to remove the flesh that was buried in the church of St. Peter; his bones were put in a pocket to continue the crusade. In Antioch, however, the German army was further reduced by fever. [52] The young Frederick had to ask his relative Conrad of Montferrat for help in order to drive him safely via Tyre to Acre, where his father`s bones were buried.[52] While the Imperial Army failed to achieve its goal of conquering Jerusalem, it seized the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate and inflicted significant damage on Turkish forces, killing more than 9,000 Turkish soldiers in all battles and skirmishes combined. [53] From Tyre, Christian troops, reinforced by soldiers of the Third Crusade (1189-1191), surrounded the Muslims in Acre, destroyed most of the Egyptian navy and, under the leadership of Richard the Lionheart, captured the city and massacred its Muslim defenders. .

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